Friday, June 1, 2012

Kirat-Janakriti and the Rajbanshis

KIRAT-JANAKRITI BY DR. S.K. CHATTERJEE AND THE RAJBANSHI OF KAMRUP-KAMTA: A CRITICAL REVIEW 

Introduction:[1.0] 
   The North-east India was once famous for its ancient heritage of Pragjyotishpur or Kamrupa which was afterwards named Kamata or Kamtapur. Different castes and religious sects had been living since time immemorial. Amongst them Rajbanshi and the Koch are on critical controversy now over their ethnicity. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, with his work ‘Kirat-Janakriti’ cast an effect on those two races. In this respect, of course, Hogdson, Risley, Grierson, Hunter, did not the less of the confusing and controversial situation for which the two communities Rajbanshi and Koch are in crucial position; specially the Rajbanshis are making tug of war of those two identities- Rajbanshi and Koch. In search of a decisive way of identical inference an attempt is made here in brief to make a study on ‘Kirat- Janakriti’ by Suniti Kumar Chatterjee.

Queries: [1.2) 
   1)Are the Kamrup-Kamta emperors or kings Non-Aryan or Kirat or Mlechha? And are the Rajbanshis, too? 2) Are the Rajbanshis Koch? 

Book Details: [1.3] 
‘KIRAT-JANAKRITI’ The Indo-Mongoloids: THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF INDIA, Suniti Kumar Chatterji, THE ASIATIC SOCIETY, 1, Park Street, Calcutta.First Publish- 1951, Reprint-1974,1998. 

Criticism: [2.0]
 Aryan, A common Synthesis:[2.1] 
    The book dealt with the Indo-Mongoloids specially of North-East India. In the list of these Indo-Mongoloid people the Rajabanshi has been included without methodological study of genealogy and ethnicity. No close study has been attempted on whole scale migration of human being, specially from the North-East India, and more to say, from middle Asia and from its adjacent area (from Bahlk of Bactria of Greek). Many groups of people such as Kambojas, Bahlikas, Trigartians came to Pragjyotishpur or Kamrup in different times in early mythological era. Chandrabansha(Lunar dynasty) speally who are called Haihay race, Surya bansha(Solar dynasty) came to Kamrupa and contributed to build the Rajbanshi race together with the Kambojas and Bahlikas; And to them have been added, the Bardhanas (Bratya kshatriyas)of Pundra Bardhan. The Kambojas and Bahlikas had been identified as Iranian. The ‘Kurus’ and ‘Madras’ were Bahlika. Santanu’s (of Mahabharata)elder brother was Bahlika. The great hermit Vashista was a kamboja. And actually Aryan is a common cultural synthesis of the Aryans and Iranians and some other tribes (in the then period all races were called tribes before coming to common cultural synthesis) of Avestan(Zend Avesta) culture.

 Kamboj Koch and Kachhari Koch:[ 2.2]
    So migration and immigration, and socio-political relation, ethnic diversity and discrimination are the main factors of study. But in Suniti Kumar there is only one concentration on tribalism or Kiratism of North-East India including Rajbanshis. He concentrated his mind on immigration of Mongolian people through Brahmaputra Valley. And they are Kirat or Koch and Rajbanshi too, as Bodo. It is his preconceived idea which has been imposed upon Rajbanshis. All the Rajbanshis are not Koch; it has been admitted by Martin- ‘all Rajbanshi are not Koch’1 . And there are two types of Koch: Kamboj Konch(Koch) or Kachhariya Koch. The Kachharia Koches are Kirat Koch. The Kamboj Rajbanshis have also been called Koch. Suniti Kumar himself has admitted the idea of the word ‘Koch’ coming from ‘Kamboj’2. 

Golden Colour, a poetic Exaggeration:[ 2.3]
    Suniti Kumar referred the line of Mahabharata quoted earlier by Sylvian Levi in his work on Nepal(p-31-32). The line reads that the soldiers of Bhagadatta were og golden colour,ie, of the colour the Kirats. This is actually a poetic exaggeration. Most of the soldiers may be of golden colour. For this reason the ruler may not be taken to be Kirat. Only one line can not be inferring to Kiratism.

Bhaskar Barman:[2.4] 
  In Nidhanpur copperplate Bhaskar Barman has been written as the sun of Aryan religion3. Huen Tsang has taken Baskar Barman a Brahman. Huen Tsang mentioned the language Kamrup differed a little from that of Mid-India. 

Bharat, Bhagadatta and Bhagirath:[2. 5] 
   In Talcher plate of Orissa, the donor (Subhankaradeva IV, Bhauma dynasty of Orissa) has been said to be the ‘final incarnation of Bharat, Bhagadatta and Bhagirath’4. K. C. Panigarhi has given a number of cogent arguments to establish that the Bhaumas of Kamrupa and Orissa were definitely two branches of the same family5. If Naraka or Bhagadatta had not been Aryan, the name of Bhagadatta would not have been placed beside Bharat and Bhagirath, the great respected figures of Aryan people. Bhagadatta was the father-in-law of Duryadhan. He was a friend of Indra. In the Mahabharata he was called ‘Kulin’. He participated in the ‘Sayambhar Sabha’ of Droupadi.

 Kamrup-Kamta, A Hindu Empire or Kindom: [3.0] 
The Hindu Kings(mostly Chandra Banshi Prithu) of Kamrup-Kamta bravely pushed back and defeated the Muslim attacks. R.C. Majumdar opined: ’Whilest the rest of India was convulsed by the upheaval of new religious sects, Kamrupa retained the Brahmanical religion to the last.6 

Haihay Line of Viswasingha:[4.0] 
Suniti Kumar called Biswasingha as Koch. But he was of Haihay line of Madhya Pradesh(Maheswar). Driven by Parshuram some of the Haihays came towards East and settled in Kamrup. Father of Haridas Mandal was Damambu; Damambu’s father was Basudam; Basudam’s father was Sumati; Sumati’s father was not known clearly. ‘Satidah’ system was in vogue in Brahmanical society. Hira died on the pyre of Haridas Mandal. Biswasingha’s wife died on the pyre of Biswasingha. 7 

Anthropoloyg:[5.0] 
Anthropology has four branches: 1) Linguistic Anthropology, 2) Historical Anthropology, 3) Physical Anthropology, and Socio-Cultural Anthropology. Linguistic and Historical Anthropology never support Non-Aryanization of Rajbanshis. Sunukiti Kumar himself gave a measuring standard to identify the Mongoloids.8 :’The Mongoloid tribes represent at least three distinct physical types- the primitive long-headed Mongoloids, who were found in the sub-Himalayan tracts, in Nepal and mostly in Assam; the less primitive and more advanced short-headed Mongoloids, who were found mostly in Burma and have expanded from Burma through Arakan into Chittagong: and finally the Tibeto-Mongoloids, who are fairly tall and have lighter skin and appear to be the most highly developed type of the Mongoloids who came to India.’ The long headed primitive Mongloloid tribe, as we see, is not found in Rajbanshis. In the sub Himalayan tracts, in Nepal and Assam there lived Limbu, Rai, Lama, Bodo, Koch, Rabha, naga kuki, maithei etc. And these Naga, Khasia, Kuki, Garo, and Rabha,maithei etc. came in the early times to India from China, and they have been driven by Amurtajan who established Kamrupa near Dharmaranya in an early period of the Ramayana. 9 

Language:[6.0] 
 Kamrupi language is an Aryan speech; “It can not be devined when Aryan speech first came to North Bengal probably from Mithila and central and South Bengal from Anga” 10 Sununit Kumar himself opined this and placed this Kamrupi Langguage(dialect as he had named) in the list of Indo-Aryan subgroups. His idea of Syno-Tibetan language to be discarded by Rabanshis in very early times seams to be wrong. The Kamtapuris(Rajbanshis) used sanskrit language in corrupt forms which may be called Classical Sanskrit.11 Prakrita form of Lnguages like Pali and Magadhi or Purba magadhi (and specially Maithili) bear closer relation to Kamrupi or Kamtapuri language. Hodgson said:"The Kirati on account of their distinctly traceable antiquity as a nation and the peculiar structure of their language are perhaps the most interesting of all the Himalayan races".12 But Kirati language ,as well as Kirati antiquity, has no similarity with Kamtapuri Rajbanshi. 

Conclusion:[7.0] 
  Kirat-Janakriti is not enough to be followed forever. Ocean-depth study of should be attempted by the students of history and culture. Some of the Rajbanshis of East Assam and Meghalaya got mixed. And a little of Bodo blood may come to Rajbanshi that generally happens to any caste because of living side by side for a long time. But for this reason no identity of any caste or race may be changed. Racial identity is a process reformation of culture just like the Aryan identity is also a process of reformation of Hinduism, a synthesis of Aryan, Iranian and some of pre-Aryan Indian customs and rites. Identity is not a breakable thing that breaks with an easy single blow of foreign blood. In Nepal, during Bhuti Barman(538 A.D.) and then Bhaskar Barman, and then again Naranarayan the Rajbanshis spread their habitat up to Jhapa and Morang. The Narayan kings of Bijaypur(Vijaypur state) of East Nepal or North Behar is remarkable.

 References: 
1.The History, Antiquities, Topography, And Statistics of Eastern India , Montgomery Martin, Vol-III,Puraniya 
    Ranggopoor and Assam, London, p- p-544. 
2.Chatterji Suniti Kumar, Kirat Janakriti, p-113, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata,1974.
3.Barma Dharma Narayan, Manta Dhaneswar, ‘Kamrup Kamta CoochBehar Rajyer Itihas’, Minati 
   Adhikari,Tufanganj, 2005, p- 269. 
4.Tripathi Sridhar, Kamrup-Kalinga-Mithila, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 2008, p-18.
5.Ibid, p- 17. 6.Majumdar R.C., Ancient India,Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvtd. Delhi, Reprint- 2003, p-257. 7.Barma Dharma Narayan, Manta Dhaneswar, ‘Kamrup Kamta CoochBehar Rajyer Itihas’, Minati 
   Adhikari,Tufanganj, 2005, p-114.
8.Chatterli Suniti Kumar, Kirat Janakriti, p-20, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata,1974. 
9.Gourer Itihas(Bengali), Rajani kanta Ckakraberty, Dey’s Publication, Kolkata, p-22]. 
10.Chatterji Suniti Kumar, ODBL, Third impression 2002, NewDelhi, Rupa & Co. 
11.Barman Suja, Kamtapuri Abhdhan, Kamtapuri Bhasha Unnayan Parishad, Dinhata, Coochbehar, 2011. 12.B. 
    Hodgson, Essays relating to Indian Subjects, 1880, London by, p- 397 .

Thursday, May 31, 2012

Kamta History and Culture of North-East India: History of Kamta

Kamta History and Culture of North-East India: History of Kamta: History of Kamta is very reach. In Ramayana and Mahabharata and Puranas and Tantras history of Kamta had been depicted gloriously. Its early...

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Kamtapuri Language, An Indo-Aryan Subgroup






1.0 Name of Language:

In today's North Bengal and West Assam there is a variety of Indo-Aryan Language spoken by millions of people. The speaker people are on an active movement for recognition of the language as Kamtapuri. The naming of this language bears a controversy. The political parties which are better to be known as so

cio-political parties growing with regional concern and some socio-linguistic groups name the language as Kamtapuri. Some of them tend to call 'Kamta' and 'KamtaBehari'. And some other people wh

Grierson(1903-'28) in his Linguistic Suvey of India first named the Language as 'Rajbanshi. But he could not stick to his idea of naming the language. In Rangpur he named it as Rangpuri. This caste-specific and locality specific name given by Grierson have been discarded first by Thakur Panchanan. He was the first scholar from among the speaker people who made a daring protest against the socio-linguistic misnomer. He named the Language as KamtaBehari referring to Kingdom of lato always remain with the side of institutions as to gain facility and some of whom sometime cruelly scolds the Kamta-protagonists to show their open heartedness, name the language as 'Rajbanshi'. There are some other alternate names which are not prominent and belong to less educated and less conscious people. These are 'Deshi Bhasha', 'Rangpuri', 'Suryapuri'. Rangpuri is local name of the language in Rangpur, and Suryapuri is called in Kishanganj.
er Kamtap
ur which dominated the region from eighteenth century onward. He proved the ethnic identity of the Rajbanshi as Kshatriya.

Through several kinds of socio-cultural controversies prominence has been gained in favour of of the name Kamtapuri because of its generalizing aspect referring to the people irrespecting of caste, creed and religion; though 'Rajbanshi' is also following the track with its caste centric idealism and opportunism too. This term is mostly used in Nepal. But there is also another term 'Tajpuria' which rejects 'Rajbanshi' term on the basis that it is caste-centric(Toulmin-2006). The Muslims who also speak the same language reject this Rajbanshi term for fear of being fallen in linguistic identity crisis. The term Suryapuri is also used in North-East Bihar and adjoining place of Dinajpur mostly by the Deshi Muslims as they tend to reject the Caste-cebtric term Rajbanshi.

Dr. Suniti Kr. Chatterjee used the term 'Kamrupi'(ODBL). He also called it 'Paschim Kamrupi. The term Kamrupi seems to be appropriate whcih covers the whole region of this language. But historically th
e term Kamta is the later name of Kamrup Empire or Kingdom and which is also called Paschim Kamrup. This Kamta was also called Kamtapur. And so Kamta or Kamtapuri term is most appropriate and most popular too. The credit of this conclusion goes to Suniti Kr. with his place idealism of Kamrupi or Pschim Kamrupi, And which was also followed by Panchanan with his 'Kamta Behari' term.

The term Kamtapuri gets its closer relation to Kamtapuri political movement while being evolved with socio-linguistic upliftment, and getting debarred by the institutions.

Due to its political touch some scholars tend to name the language as mere Kamta which keeps a closer relation to historical background and at the same time do not discard the political overtone which is the cry of the indigenous people. But it is found that the term Kamtapuri has automatically been popular through continuous movement and circulation of written documents.


1.1 Geographical Spread:
The ancient Kamrup was very much developed. Its rule spread all over the surrounding area. And so still its lan
guage prevail in all over the surrounding areas cntring on Cooch Behar.

The Present Districts are:
- Jhapa and Morong of Nepal
- Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia of Bihar(India)
-Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Cooch Behar, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur of West Bengal(India)
- Kokrarjhar, Dhubri, Bongaigaon and Goalpara of Assam(India)
- Rangpur, Dinajpur, Rajbanshi and part of Bagura of BAngladesh.

2.0 A Brief History of the Language:

Indo-Aryan LAnguage came to Kamrup in ancient times. Dr. Suniti Kr. Chatterjee says: 'It can not be divined when Aryan speech first came to Bengal, to North Bengal probably from Mithila, and central and south Bengal from Anga.''- ODBL. Mithila was the earliest settlement of the Aryans in North-East India. And from Mithila the Aryans entered into Kamrup. And with them generally came the Aryan Speech.

The flow of Indian Language started in the Vedic period. The language of the Vedas was called 'Chhandas'. From the very beginning of the Vedic Language it had been experiencing a mixture with other indige
nous languages. With this mixture the Language 'Chhandas' turned itself into 'Sanskrit'(Reformed) Language. The great grammarian Panini did this job of making reformed. The Sanskrit was the language of the elite people ie, the Purahit and the Brahmins. So beside this aristocratic language another language grew which was called 'Prakrit Language'. This Prakrit Languages were of four kinds: 1) Shaursheni, 2) Maharastri, 3) Paishachi, and 4) Magadhi. Kamtapuri Language is branch of Magadhi Prakrit. But here is another vital point to note that this language took its shape in the very beginning of the formation of Magadhi Parakrit. The Aryan culture, when it came forward towards East. It entered first to Mithila. Mithila was Aryanized before Magadh.At the same time or after a short period of time the then Pragjyotish or Kamrupa was Aryanized. Afterwards MAgadh became the centre of Aryan culture. So the Prakrit language of this region was named after Magadh, not after Mithila. However, with Mithilan influence Kamrupi Prakrit(Kamrupi or Kamta or language) took its shape. And so this language has some similarity with Mithila. In this language earliest form of Pali Prakrit can also be found.

Sanskrit influence in Kamtapuri language is domonantly found. The practical etymological findings of Kamtapuri language proves that thia language rightly may be called Classical Sanskrit(Kamtapur
i Abhidhan-2011).

In mythological the Aryan King Amurtajan(in earlier stage of Ramayana era) established the Kingdom or empire of Pragjyotishpur. Then Narak, the son of Janka of Mithila, is another Aryan king who reigned Pragjyotishpur after driving the Kiratas out to the south-east, and gave shelter to the high caste people. "In the Brahmans the Aryan settled in the eastern country by crossing the river Sadanira(Kusi) between Kosala and Mithila. This is recounted in in also in the Satapad Brahmana. The Aryans came to Kamrupa through Mithila. According to Bankim Chandra Chatterjee also Kamrupa is an ancient settlement of Aryans. "-(Cooch Beharer Itihas, Sarat Chandra Ghosal, p-14).

In the historiacal era Pushya Barman established the Barman Dynasty(380). This Barman dynasty made utmost development. Before 350 BC Brahmi script had been used. And after that the Brahmi script divided into two differnt branches such as North Brahmi script and south Brahmi script. From North Brahmi script Gupta script was originated. Gupta era is called Golden Era in Indian history. Aryan culture, literature, religion_ everything was rejuvenated. With the touch of this rejuvenating enthusiasm of the Gupta empire Barman Kings did not lack behind. Aryan culture an
d religion got proper place to be developed in this Kamrup of Barman dynasty. Vashnavism also developed in this dynasty specially in the reign of Bhuti BArman. From the Gupta script Kamrupi script was originated by the Kamrupi Barman Kings. This Kamrupi script got reformed by other Kamrupi Kings after Bhaskar Barman.

The greatest emperor of this line was Bhaskar Barman in whose reign the Chinese travellor Huen Tsang came to Kamrup and commented on Kamrupi language to be slight different from the language of Mid-India.

The history of development of Indo-Aryan Language in India may be divided into three parts such as 1) Old Indo-Aryan(1500 BC to 600 BC which is called the era of Vedic Language or Sanskrit, 2) Middle Indo-Aryan(600 BC to 800 AD) which is the era of the Language Pali Prakrit, and 3) New Indo-Aryan (800 AD to the present). The BArman dynasty of Kamrup was from 380 AD to 910 AD which covers successfuly the last Old Ind-Aryan age and the whole of Middle Indo-Aryan and even the first part of New Ind-Aryan age, which was the foundation-stone of the Language development of later times.
In 800 AD to 1200 AD Charyapada was composed in Kamrupi-Maithili language. From a careful study of compositions it appears that dohas fit into the prevailing spirit of the age. Though they appear to be written in a a mixed dialect of Kamrupi and Maithili and are mainly dedacticin a purpose. Those poems have a significant literary value in the evolution of old Assamese poetry"- (Assamese Literature, -Dr. Hem Chandra Barua, Page- 40).
But the Assamese came to Kamrup on 1228their Tai tribal language. The present Assamese language originated from Kamrupi Lnaguage( 'The Kamta Language, Progenitor of Assamese and Bengali'- Dr. T. C. Rastogi and Arun Chowdhury.
After Charyapada Kamrupi Tantra, Gopichandra Maynamatir Gan, Jager Gan, Murshia Gan, Chair Juger Gan, Gorokhnather Gan, Sonarayer Gan etc. came into existence flourishingly all over Kamta or Kamtapur. In 1250 AD the Kamrup became Kamta and then Kamtapur. In this Kamta region language got its real shape and literature developed to its zenith.
In the royal court of Naranarayan a host of scholars developed this language. The greatest of them was Sankar Dev who was on the other hand a religious teacher of the Vasnavism sect. The historian Kanak lal Barua compared the age of Naranarayan with that of Elizabethan era.
In early eighteenth century and nineteenth century Kamtapur lost its lusture. The East India Company became powerful and started making development of Bengali language for administrative purpose, and thus afterwards Assamese language was developed by the missionaries. And so this Kamta or Kamtapuri language was left behind. In the early twentieth century Panchanan Sarkar(Barma), the indigenous scholar started writing Kamta or Kamta Behari language.
And then came present age of Kamtapuri language with tidal flow of written documents.

2.1. Short Bibliography:
1. Kamtapuri Bhasha Sahityer Ruprekha- Dharma Narayan Barma, Rayadak Prakashan,
Tufanganj, Cooch Behar
2) Bhashar Itibritta- Dr. Sukumar Sen.
3) O.D.B.L.- Dr. Suniti Kumar Chattarjee.
4) Reconstructing Linguistic History in Dialect Continuum, The Kamta Rajbanshi and Northern
Deshi Bangla Subgroup of Indo-Aryan, Matthew W.S. Toulmin-2006,
5) Assamese Literature - Dr. Hemchandra Barua.
6) Linguistic Survey of India- G.A. Grierson.
7) The Kamta Language, Progenitor of Assamese and Bengali,- Dr T.C. Rastogi and Arun
Chowdhury.
9) Kamrup Kamta Kuch Behar Rajyer Itihas,- Dharma Narayan Barma, Dhaneswar Manta,
Raydak prakashan, Tufanganja, Cooch Behar, 2000.
10) Kamtapuri Abhidhan,- Sujan Barman, Kamtapuri Bhasha Unnayan Parishad, Dinhata, Cooch
Behar.

3.0. Sample Poems Drawn From Written Literature:



Sunday, September 18, 2011

KAMTAPURI ABHIDHAN (Kamtapuri to Kamtapuri, English)


COMPILED BY

SUJAN BARMAN


LAUNCHED on 16th February, 2011.

Published By

KAMTAPURI BHASHA UNNAYAN PARISHAD
DINHATA. COOCHBEHAR(WB), INDIA

Price- Rs. 790/-

FOREWARD

Words: the building blocks of conversation, poetry, song, deliberation and so much more. Words: the linguistic gift of one generation to the next; constantly being passed on, enduring and changing. Words are a cultural heritage, a present reality, and a tool to shave the future. Words set forth the community's thought.

In these pages Sri Sujan Barman painstakingly documented through words _ their meanings categorized, compared, considered, clarified. This work is an outstanding achievement of practical, cultural, and academic merit. It is a tribute both to the rich cultural heritage, and to the enduring relevance of this language and its words.

In these words we can trace the Indo-Aryan linguistic heritage, inherited through numerous stages of evolution. Magadha, Kamrupa, Kamata, Cooch Behar, Rajbanshi and more besides. In these words we can observe the phonological and morphological innovations that have punctuated the different phases of the language's history. through these words we can glimpse the environment, experiences, ideas, beliefs and values of the Kamtapuri (also called Rajbanshi or Deshi) speech community of the north Bengal and western Assam region.

This dictionary is worthy of the attention of linguists, social scientists, and speakers of this language. The countless hours spent in compiling its contents demonstrate a dedication which is commendable.


Dr. Matthew Toulmin
Serampore, Hoogly, W.B.






Lecture of Dr. Matthew Toulmin in the Inaugural Function of Kamtapuri Abhidhan on 16-02-2011 In Pacha saheed Mancha in Cooch Behar, W.B., India


We have come here today, for an important event, which is to inaugurate the first dictionary in this language of northern Bengal and western Assam region. Several people have published lists of words in this language over the last centuries, but never before has there been such a large collection and systematic presentation of the words which are used by Rajbanshis and local Muslims and other castes of this region. More than 13000 words are given for us here: collected , sorted, analysed, and clearly presented, what then shall we say about these words?
Words are the blocks with which our human society is built. Through words we discuss and instruct, sing and pray, express sorrow and joy. Words are passed on, from generation to the next: from father and mother to son and daughter, from son and daughter to grandson and granddaughter, and so on. Words are a cultural heritage .They are also a present reality. We hear them along the road, and in the field, and inside the house, as people go about their lives. Words are a tool to shape the future; to think and discuss and decide and act. Words set forth the structure of a community’s thoughts.
Words are cultural riches. Therefore, when we hold this book in our hand, we are holding cultural riches and wealth. These words are precious things, both for the speaker of this language, and also for the social scientist and scholar. Today we have gathered to give respect to these words and the cultural heritage they symbolize. There may be a Rupee price written on the book, but the cultural value, and the academic value, is much higher.
Let us consider briefly the academic value of this words. In these words we can trace the Indo-Aryan linguistic heritage, which has come down from Sanskrit, through Magadhi, to Kamrupa, to Kamtapur, to Cooch Behar and its Rajbanshis and Deshi Muslims and other castes of people. In these words we can observe the phonological and morphological changes that have occurred through different periods of language history. We can research how the environment and experiences and ideas of the community have influenced the language. This is a treasure for linguistic and cultural and historical research.
The contents of this book are worthy of respect, and so to is the man who has written this book. One must have a certain kind of temperament in order to collect, sort, analyze and present 13000 words in one book: one must be a lover of language; one must have a systematic and disciplined work ethos; one must have patience and determination to continue on this course over many years. Sri Sujan Barman is this kind of man: a lover of language; a systematic worker; and a determined scholar. When he started the work, he could not have known how difficult a job this would be. He has spent his time, his energy, his health, and his money in order to complete this task. Today we can benefit from his hard work by paying a few rupees, taking the book home, and consulting it about the words of this language. I congratulate and commend Sri Sujan Barman for his work. I believe that people of difficult backgrounds and castes will be able to recognize and respect the work that he has done, as an act of service to the cultural riches of his mother tongue.

Monday, July 5, 2010

History of Kamta

History of Kamta is very reach. In Ramayana and Mahabharata and Puranas and Tantras history of Kamta had been depicted gloriously. Its early history had been started with the vast empire Pragjyotishpur. It encompassed the Brahmaputra valley, Bhutan, present North Bengal, Jhapa and Morang of Nepal and the Rangpur region of Bangladesh.

Defeating the Kirat rulers Aryan King Amritarjun and Naraka established the Pragjyotishpur empire. Brahmins and other Aryan people came to this region to settle permanently. Then Naraka’s son Bhagadatta enhanced and strengthened the Aryan influence.
Then after a long period of darkness historical era in Kamrupa (Pragjyotishpur) begins with the King of all kings Pushya Barman (350 - 380 AD), who was a contemporary of Samudragupta (350 - 375 AD).. His descendant Mahendra Barman had to wage war against the Guptas to keep his empire intact and he successfully performed the Ashwamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice). And then the glory of Barman dynasty reached its zenith during the rule of Bhaskar Barman (594 - 650 AD. He was called the best protector of Aryan culture. Hiuen tsang took him to be a Brahmin since he was always in the midst of Brahmins and being a bachelor he led an ascetic life. Several stone and copper inscriptions dating from the7th to the 12th centuries indicate a great succession of Hindu dynasties. Nidhanpur Copper-plate of Bhaskar Barman reads, ‘--- By the grace of God he (the King) was born to make a suitable arrangement for the disorderly Aryan religion of caste system.----------- like the sun he (the King), throwing proper rays on everywhere in proper manner removed the darkness of ‘kali’(era of sins) and enlightened the Aryan religion.’

After Bhaskar Barman Sastambha Barman came to rule Kamrupa and then followed several Barman Kings. Harjar Barman and Banamala Barman were other famous emperors of Kamrup. Banamala Barman was called ‘Paramewsar Param Bhattarak Maharajadhiraj’ The last Barman King was Bala Barman the third(885-910). The king Tyag Singha ruled Kamrupa(910-980).
After Tyag Singha Brahma Pal Barman of ruled Kamrupa. He took the title ‘Pal’ and ruled the empire successfully. Jay Pal was the last Pal ruler of Kamrupa(1120-1138).------------------